Too often it’s assumed that thing “arise”. As in:
a. “The universe arises in the Big Bang”
b. “Life arises from non life”
c. “Human intelligence arises from animals”
d. “Consciousness arises”
e. “AI machines will arise”
It’s better to say “we have no idea” than assume these – so far – insurmountable, qualitative jumps are trivial. The only experience we have with “arising” is the failed “spontaneous generation” theory.
The discontinuities mentioned here, as well as many others, have never been observed and cannot be duplicated or conceptualized properly. Explanations are sometimes given by proponents, but these never amount to more than myths.
An example of meaningless “explanation” is the one given for “Human intelligence arises from animals”. We are told that somehow, a group of animals came across fire or plentiful food, and that extra energy resource led to the arousal of bigger human brains. But all hypothesis tests result in increased populations or larger individuals, and never significantly smarter ones.
Both elephants and whales are bigger and have bigger brains than humans, yet neither is more intelligent. Why didn’t they get smarter instead of bigger or why not get both bigger and smarter? Even apes, small or big are more or less the same in intelligence. Between them there’s no significant chasms such as between human and any ape.
In nature, simple Accumulations do not result in untraceable Transformations. Even when they seem to do, such as in liquefaction-gasification, a catalyst (pressure/temperature) is present, and the process is repeatable.