Natural Selection – Evolution Magic

Natural Selection is described as “the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype”. To this, some add “blind, mindless, and purposeless environmental process” that nonetheless is imagined turning random genetic mutations into superior new features enhancing descendants’ survivability (fitness). Accumulation of these features supposedly turns one lifeform into another over time. […]

Random Abuse

  You toss a coin and it always comes up Heads. Does that mean the coin is loaded? What does any other sequence of Heads and Tails tell us? When can we be certain that an outcome is random? In fact, we can never tell from the results whether an outcome is random or not […]