Speciation Problems

“Biologic species” does not have a satisfactory definition. Most often “species” is defined as “the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction”. The fertility “barrier” is however arbitrary, inadequate for closely related species, and irrelevant to the vast group of asexually reproducing organisms. Since organisms do […]

Natural Selection – Evolution Magic

Natural Selection described as “the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype” or alternatively as “survival of the best adapted”. It is also supposed to be a “blind, mindless, and purposeless environmental process” that hypothetically turns random genetic mutations into superior new features enhancing descendants’ survivability. Accumulation of these features supposedly […]

Random Abuse

  You toss a coin and it always comes up Heads. Does that mean the coin is loaded? What does any other sequence of Heads and Tails tell us? When can we be certain that an outcome is random? In fact, we can never tell from the results whether an outcome is random or not […]